Military Strategy for India in the 21st Century

Lt Gen AK Singh and Lt Gen BS Nagal

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“A developing nation like India, cannot afford to spend over Rs 4,00,000 crores (nearly US $62.8 billion) on defence every year without a formalised national and military security strategy. If its military forces are to be successfully and optimally utilised, India’s politico-military strategy, construct and its pattern of civil-military relations must undergo concurrent changes and reforms. Requisite planning and operational preparedness along with tri service synergy and good civil-military relations will be the key to success and victory.

‘Military Strategy for India in the 21st Century’ is a comprehensive collection of high value essays defining multiple nuances of military strategy. Written by prominent military and civilian experts on essential aspects of national and military strategy, the book reflects on the need to deal with existing and potential security threats and challenges, as well as achievement of national goals and aspirations, in which the military has a role to play.”

                                                                                                                  — General V P Malik
                                                                                                          Former Chief of Army Staff

“This anthology of research essays written by the domain experts covering the field of strategic thinking as applicable at global, regional, and sub-regional levels. It focuses on what India has to factor in while extrapolating her military strategy in the 21stcentury. The empiricism is logical in its methodology and hence provides a tapestry of analysis based on experience and judgement to cover up the a-theoretical nature of analysis pertaining to the content and context of the essays and represents a serious attempt to bridge the gap for policy orientation due to the absence of a formal security planning guideline in India. The essays provide an intellectual inquisitiveness to enrich the evolving domain of strategic thinking in India. Quintessentially the collection is a value addition to the emerging field of professional military education in the Indian context. It has the potential to bring the town and gown together and therefore a must read for one and all who are not only in the profession of Arms but also their civilian counterparts in the academia, the private and public sector.”

                                                                                                                  — Gautam Sen, Pune
                                                                               National Institute of Advance Studies (NIAS)

Lt Gen AK Singh and Lt Gen BS Nagal


Lieutenant General A K Singh (Retd) is a Distinguished Fellow with the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS).
Lieutenant General Balraj Singh Nagal (Retd) is former Director of the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS).


Edited by


Foreword by V K Singh

1. Introduction
A K Singh
2. The Larger Context: India’s Grand Strategy, National Security Strategy and Military Strategy
Philip Campose
3. Changing Nature of Conflict in the 21st Century
A K Singh and Raj Shukla
4. Military Strategy
A K Singh and Praveen Bakshi
5. Indian Response to Internal Conflicts
D S Hooda
6. Maritime Strategy
Anil Chopra
7. Strategy for Aerospace Domain
Arup Raha
8. Optimising the Special Forces
Prakash Katoch
9. Out of Area Operations
Subrata Saha
10. Cyber and Space Strategy for India
P K Mallick
11. India’s Nuclear Doctrine and Strategy
B S Nagal
12. Shifting the Nuclear Security Focus to China
Bharat Karnad
13. Higher Defence Management: Evolution and Reform
Manoj Joshi
14. Civil-Military Dynamic: Making of Military Strategy
Rakesh Sharma
15. Resource Management to Complement Military Strategy
Arun Sahni
16. Defence Cooperation as an Emerging Tool to Complement Military Strategy
K J Singh
17. Military Leadership in the 21st Century
A K Singh and V K Ahluwalia
18. Conclusion
Balraj Nagal



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