Increase in Nuclear Capabilities of Pakistan: Implications for India

Akhilesh Kumar

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Pakistan sees India as the raison d’etre for going nuclear and considers its nuclear weapon as the ultimate guarantor of nation’s existence and its sovereign entity providing for strategic equaliser of power asymmetry, deterrent of conventional war and facilitator of sub-conventional war.

It was in May 1998 when both, India and Pakistan openly went nuclear. However, since then, the way Pakistan has been amassing fissile materials and developing nuclear arsenal including development of TNW, and their envisioned employment as weapon of warfighting, is a matter of concern for the world as a whole and India in particular.

India’s nuclear doctrine has never been reviewed since its introduction in January 2003. With increase in Pakistan’s nuclear capabilities impacting security considerations for India, there is a raging debate with respect to India’s doctrine of NFU and Massive Retaliation. So, the debates making round are—Is there a need for India to review its Nuclear Doctrine?, Does Pakistan’s TNW pose dangers to robustness of nuclear deterrence between India and Pakistan? Has Pakistan blocked the options for India to launch conventional operations and achieved its envisaged full spectrum deterrence? Is Pakistan’s TNW Threat Credible? What is the Efficacy/Futility of TNW as Weapon of Warfighting? Should India also develop TNW? and Should India sign CTBT?

The author has attempted to answer these questions and has been remarkably frank and honest in expressing his views.

Akhilesh Kumar (now Brigadier) is an Infantry Officer commissioned into the 4th Battalion of The Rajputana Rifles in 1992 and is an alumnus of Sainik School Tilaiya, the National Defence Academy Khadakwasla (Pune) and Indian Military Academy at Dehradun. A graduate of the Defence Services Staff College Wellington, the Officer also attended the Higher Defence Management Course, Secunderabad.





1. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapon Development: Historical Perspective
2. Pakistan’s Nuclear Strategy and Nuclear Policy
3. Pakistan’s Nuclear Command and Control
4. Security and Vulnerability of Pakistan’s Nuclear Arsenal
5. Tactical Nuclear Weapons
6. India’s Nuclear Doctrine: An Analysis
7. Implications and Recommendations



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