Deep State Continuum in Pakistan & Implications for India

Jyoti M. Pathania

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“Dr.Jyoti M. Pathania’s work is an important piece of scholarship. Pakistan’s Deep State has an inordinate influence on our region. It deserves to be under India’s microscope, to be studied closely by scholars experts and policy-makers.”

Ambassador Ajay Bisaria
Former High Commissioner of India to Pakistan

“The book decodes the theoretical underpinnings of the term deep state as part of a larger discourse on geo-political and security studies. The deep state’s influence in Pakistan having geo-strategic ramifications for India, makes this book extremely significant and relevant. An exceptionally detailed research and well-structured analysis presented in a lucid form. A must read for the strategic and defence community.”

General NC Vij, PVSM, UYSM, AVSM (Retd)
Former Indian Chief of Army Staff

“A brilliant pioneering study of the Deep State in Pakistan and its implications for India. The book draws out comprehensively the serpentine character of the Military Intelligence Complex in Pakistan and the reality of Uniformed Democracy controlled by the GHQ in Rawalpindi. Essential reading for all those concerned about South Asia and its future.”

Professor Amitabh Mattoo, D. Phil. (Oxon.), Padma Shri
School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

“Dr Jyoti M. Pathania has produced a timely and essential new study on the Pakistani Army and its broader security establishment. While Pakistan has experienced major political changes in recent years, the military continues to be the country’s most powerful political actor. With Pakistan’s relationship with India in a dangerously deep freeze, and with the Taliban victory in Afghanistan increasing Pakistan’s access and influence in that country, the current state of play with Pakistan’s deep state has major implications for India. Dr.Pathania navigates this complex landscape with great skill and lucidity.”

Mr Michael Kugelman
Deputy Director, Woodrow Wilson Centre, Washington DC, USA


A relatively new, fascinating yet under researched term, Deep State used in the field of International Relations, is decoded in the book with theory and facts, as a part of the larger discourse on geo-politics and geo-strategic studies, thus filling the gaps on the subject. What does the term deep state mean? When did it become part of the international relations vocabulary? What are the driving forces behind it? Such intriguing queries are answered by tracing the idea from Indian political thinker, Kautilya in the 4th century BC, to its modern day avatar in Turkey in the 1990s.

The book delineates the seminal concepts in context of deep state in Pakistan and elucidates on its ramifications for India, by disseminating how behind the democratised elected parliament, “majlis-e Shura” is the iron fist which is yielding real power. As a result, Uniformed democracy (coined by author) has persevered. Pak’s deep state complexities are decrypted by tracing its growth through pre-independence and post-independence era’s and categorising its evolution into various phases. In each chapter of the book, important adjuncts of the invincible army are examined in depth, including a first-of-its-kind study on the ISPR’s information warfare as the most important weapon of the Pak Army.

South Asia’s progress has been impacted by the conflictual relations between the two nuclear neighbours. Can this be attributed to the Deep State?

Jyoti M. Pathania An Academician and Research Analyst with 23 years of teaching and research experience in various universities, to include a few­—Symbiosis University (Pune), Jiwaji University (Gwalior), Central University of Jammu, Law College (Dehradun), St. Xavier’s (Ranchi) and Amity University (Delhi-NCR).

A doctorate in Political Science; she graduated in Political Science (Hons) from Lady Shri Ram College, and secured Third Rank in Delhi University; she earned her M.A. and M.Phil. Degree in International Politics, from School of International, JNU, New Delhi; She was selected to go on a scholarship to the European Peace University (Austria) where she pursued an advanced Masters Degree in ‘Peace and Conflict Resolution Studies’.

An esteemed member of the Non-Traditional Security Consortium, Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Recipient of Prof.Randhir Singh Award; Prof NN Aggarwal Memorial Award (Delhi University); received commendation from the former COAS Late Gen BipinRawat for excellence in research and establishing academic cooperation with foreign think tanks. She has contributed to various national and international publications, authored a book—India and Pakistan, Confidence Building Measures (2012); co-edited a Monograph titled Non-Traditional & Traditional Security: South Asia (2020). She is also the Founding Editor of ‘Online Indian Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution’ (2016) and broadcasts her Podcasts titled—‘Indian Conflict Resolution’. Currently, she is Senior Fellow, Chairperson Outreach and Managing Editor CLAWS Journal at the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) New Delhi.

Her areas of interests & specialisation include International Relations, Conflict Resolution & Peace Studies, Non-Traditional Security, Women issues, United Nations and South Asia.





List of Table and Figures


1. Discourse on the Deep State in World Politics
2. Deep State and ‘Uniformed Democracy’
3. An Omnipotent, Omnipresent & Omnificent Army
4. Inter Service Intelligence (ISI) Control over Domestic Politics
5. Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR): A Force to Reckon With
6. Implications for India



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